[159] Mate is made by steeping dried leaves of the South American plant yerba mate in hot water and is served with a metal straw (بمبيجة bambīja or مصاصة maṣṣāṣah) from a gourd (فنجان finjān or قَرْعَة‎ qarʻah). Protection and mutual aid to the brethren in faith. 3. p.271, Asian and African Studies: Vol. [86][page needed] As a result of the Ottoman experience with the rebellious Druze, the word Durzi in Turkish came, and continues, to mean someone who is the ultimate thug. At the end of the 17th century (1697) the Shihabs succeeded the Ma'ans in the feudal leadership of Druze southern Lebanon, although they reportedly professed Sunni Islam, they showed sympathy with Druzism, the religion of the majority of their subjects. Al-ʻuqqāl have equal rights to al-Juhhāl, but establish a hierarchy of respect based on religious service. After the Shehab dynasty converted to Christianity, the Druze community and feudal leaders came under attack from the regime with the collaboration of the Catholic Church, and the Druze lost most of their political and feudal powers. Is this a 300 million-year-old screw or just a fossilized sea creature? Quwwatli could not dismiss Sultan Pasha's threat. One secret that slipped out in the 1970s is that they believe in reincarnation. In the Hebrew Bible Jethro was Moses' father-in-law, a Kenite shepherd and priest of Midian,[235] Jethro of Midian is considered an ancestor of Druze, who revere him as their spiritual founder and chief prophet. Recent genetic clustering analyses of ethnic groups are consistent with the close ancestral relationship between the Druze and Cypriots, and also identified similarity to the general Syrian and Lebanese populations, as well as a variety of Jewish groups (Ashkenazi, Sephardi, Iraqi, and Moroccan) (Behar et al. Babble about them, then state the Druze DNA is closest to Ashkenazim. Those are not granted access to the Druze holy literature or allowed to attend the initiated religious meetings of the ʻuqqāl. Mate is often the first item served when entering a Druze home. A new analysis of two 7.2 million-year-old fossils belonging to a hominin species nicknamed “El Graeco” from Mediterranean Europe, suggests that mankind emerged in Europe and not in Africa. The civil war of 1860 cost the Christians some ten thousand lives in Damascus, Zahlé, Deir al-Qamar, Hasbaya, and other towns of Lebanon. and in the Islam he is considered a prophet of God. [174] Most recently, the Syrian Civil War, which began in 2011, saw persecution of the Druze at the hands of Islamic extremists. [53] Others have speculated that the word comes from the Persian word Darazo (درز "bliss") or from Shaykh Hussayn ad-Darazī, who was one of the early converts to the faith. however here is some things about druze:-they are not shia they don't even believe in Mohammad-they don't celebrate Ramadan (they pretend to in Muslim countries)-they are very secretive even a lot of religious people don't have all the books about religion, each "Jwayed" has some books, very rare people who has all the … [228] The Jewish-Druze partnership was often referred as a "a covenant of blood" (Hebrew: ברית דמים, brit damim) in recognition of the common military yoke carried by the two peoples for the security of the country. [38] Druze believe that at the end of the cycle of rebirth, which is achieved through successive reincarnations, the soul is united with the Cosmic Mind (al-ʻaql al-kullī). The involvement of Freemasons in the establishment of the United States of America is well documented. This propaganda also was broadcast in the Arab world, mainly Egypt. Differences between Islamic schools and branches and Druze include their belief in the theophany,[38] Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad is considered the founder of the Druze and the primary author of the Druze manuscripts,[199] he proclaimed that God had become human and taken the form of man, al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. [140], Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad is considered the founder of the Druze and the primary author of the Druze manuscripts,[141] he proclaimed that God had become human and taken the form of man, al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. Unlike the spiritual leaders, the authority of the Shaykh al-ʻAql is limited to the country he is elected in, though in some instances spiritual leaders are elected to this position. The Druze always played a far more important role in Syrian politics than its comparatively small population would suggest. She is secular, or in Druze terms, al-Juhhāl, and therefore not privy to the secrets revealed only to ʿuqqāl, those initiated in the holy books. could communicate in both Greek and Arabic. Neglecting this warning, individual seekers, scholars, and other spectators have considered al-Hakim and other figures divine. Of many people that lived in "Palestine", Jews were also guests. The Druze faith began as an Isma'ili movement that was opposed to certain religious and philosophical ideologies that were present during that epoch. They reject nicotine, alcohol, and other drugs, and often the consumption of pork (to those Uqqāl and not necessarily to be required by the Juhhāl). According to most sources, he was born in Bukhara. Hamza gained the support of the Fātimid caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, who issued a decree promoting religious freedom prior to the declaration of the divine call. The Druze religion differs from classic forms of other monotheistic faiths in several key ways. The number 5 contains an unstated significance within the Druze faith, it's believed in this area that great prophets come in groups of five. Jewish Bulletin of Northern California. [191] On the other hand scholars argue that Druze recite the Shahada as manifestation of taqiya; a precautionary dissimulation or denial of religious belief and practice in the face of persecution, and that regards the Druze as part of the Muslim World (Beside the Shia Muslims and Alawites) by Al Azhar University was for political reasons,[192] as Gamal Abdel Nasser saw it as a tool to spread his appeal and influence across the entire Arab world. [128][page needed], Druze Sacred texts include the Quran and the Kitab Al Hikma (Epistles of Wisdom). The Druze strictly avoid iconography, but use five colors ("Five Limits" خمس حدود khams ḥudūd) as a religious symbol:[year needed] green, red, yellow, blue, and white. And in fact, by exchanging their diverse Near Eastern genes with Middle Eastern populations – such as Syrians and Palestinians – the Druze people created a more mixed genome than their ancestors, or other Middle Eastern populations. [242], A 2008 study published on the genetic background of Druze communities in Israel showed highly heterogeneous parental origins. The Druze were first recorded by the 12th century Jewish traveler Benjamin of Tudela who described them as fearless, mountain-dwelling warriors who favored the Jews. [38] The Druze faith incorporates some elements of Christianity,[30][31] and other religious beliefs. It is obligatory to kill their scholars and religious figures so that they do not misguide others",[181] which in that setting would have legitimized violence against them as apostates. [75] Epistle thirteen of the Epistles of Wisdom called it "A spiritual doctrine without any ritualistic imposition". Under Fakhr-al-Dīn II (Fakhreddin II), the Druze dominion increased until it included Lebanon-Phoenicia and almost all Syria, extending from the edge of the Antioch plain in the north to Safad in the south, with a part of the Syrian desert dominated by Fakhr-al-Din's castle at Tadmur (Palmyra), the ancient capital of Zenobia. DRUZE.The title Druze (Arab.Durz ī; pl. The Talhuq family and 'Abd-al-Malik, who supplied the later Druze leadership, have the same record as the Tanukhs. ... said to be comprised of secrets revealed in … [92] Ahmad however emerged victorious in the power struggle among the Druze in 1667, but the Maʿnīs lost control of Safad[93] and retreated to controlling the iltizam of the Shuf mountains and Kisrawan. 19, No. [86][page needed]. A large Syrian Druze community historically lived in the Golan Heights, but following wars with Israel in 1967 and 1973, many of these Druze fled to other parts of Syria; most of those who remained live in a handful of villages in the disputed zone, while only a few live in the narrow remnant of Quneitra Governorate that is still under effective Syrian control. Did Stone Age Neanderthals wait out the coldest days of winter snuggled up safely beneath furs deep inside caves, in a state of suspended animation for months while the winds raged, and the snow piled up outside? The rest of the Syrians will eventually become Christians albeit mostly of heretic and not Orthodox "main stream" versions and having close contact with Arabs they Al-Farouqi also disarmed the population, extracted significant taxes, and launched a census of the region. Not only George Washington but also the US founding fathers Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson were high-degree Masons. [39] [14], The Druze conception of the deity is declared by them to be one of strict and uncompromising unity. He is wise, mighty, and just, not by wisdom, might, and justice, but by his own essence. Many Druze religious practices are kept secret, even from the community as a whole. [238] While it is not yet known exactly what selective advantage is provided by this gene variant, the Haplogroup D allele is thought to be positively selected in populations and to confer some substantial advantage that has caused its frequency to rapidly increase. [86][page needed], The conquest of Syria by the Muslim Arabs in the middle of the seventh century introduced into the land two political factions later called the Qaysites and the Yemenites. [citation needed], Al-Hakim was replaced by his underage son, ʻAlī al-Zahir. In terms of religious comparison, scholars consider Judaism and the Druze faith as ethnoreligious groups,[233] and both practice endogamy,[19] and both typically do not proselytize. This time the prince decided to remain in Lebanon and resist the offensive, but the death of his son Ali in Wadi al-Taym was the beginning of his defeat. Be ye certain that the Prince of Believers hath given unto you free will, and hath spared you the trouble of disguising and concealing your true beliefs, so that when ye work ye may keep your deeds pure for God. [citation needed], The time of the call was seen as a revolution of truth, with missionaries preaching its message all around the Middle East. French intervention on behalf of the Maronites did not help the Maronite national movement, since France was restricted in 1860 by Britain, which did not want the Ottoman Empire dismembered. A look at its history might give you a clue. Around 15% of Druze choose this path. [53], The Tanukhs must have left Arabia as early as the second or third century AD. His increasingly chauvinistic notions of Arab nationalism were predicated on the denial that "minorities" existed in Syria. In the outcome of the revolt, 2,000 Druze were killed, a similar number wounded, and hundreds of Druze fighters imprisoned. Thoth’s Enigmatic Emerald Tablets May Provide the Answer, White Skin Developed in Europe Only As Recently as 8,000 Years Ago Say Anthropologists, The Pyramid Complex and the Hopi: Creation Myth Sheds Light on Building Plan, The Knights of Blanik Mountain Are Ready to Face the Darkest Hour. The clan of Abraham originating from Druze make pilgrimages to this site on the holiday of Ziyarat al-Nabi Shu'ayb. Star Gazing at Cheomseongdae - East Asia’s Oldest Observatory, The Ottoman Empire: 600 Years of Domination. Notice you did not mention that the Druze claim descent from Jethro, thus Kenites in Bible. [123] Today, thousands of Israeli Druze belong to "Druze Zionist" movements.[120]. [10] Most Israeli Druze identify ethnically as Arabs. In 1957, the Israeli government designated the Druze a distinct ethnic community at the request of its communal leaders. The head is the Jabal Druze, if I crush the head the serpent will die" (Seale 1963:132). [127], In their desire to maintain a rigid confession of unity, they stripped from God all attributes (tanzīh). God is "the whole of existence", rather than "above existence" or on his throne, which would make him "limited". For 1,000 years, the mysterious origin of the Druze people – who live almost exclusively in the mountains of Syria, Lebanon and Israel – has captivated linguists, historians, and sociologists. An inherently modest man, al-Hakim did not believe that he was God, and felt al-Darazi was trying to depict himself as a new prophet. Marriage outside the Druze faith is rare and is strongly discouraged. There has been much dispute over whether the Druze are of Arabian, Turkish, Caucasus or Persian origin. And I think you're going to be surprised at some of them. [241], The researchers noted that the Druze villages contained a striking range of high frequency and high diversity of the X haplogroup, suggesting that this population provides a glimpse into the past genetic landscape of the Near East at a time when the X haplogroup was more prevalent. Israel is the biggest hoax in history. Absolute submission and resignation to God's divine will in both secret and public. After the middle of the twelfth century, the Ma'an family superseded the Tanukhs in Druze leadership. Each color pertains to a metaphysical power called ḥadd, literally "a limit", as in the distinctions that separate humans from animals, or the powers that make human the animalistic body. [157], The second type of religious shrine is one associated with the anniversary of a historic event or death of a prophet. 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