The first explicit link made between Confucianism and the economic growth of East Asian societies is commonly held to have been made by Herman Kahn in World Economic Development: 1979 and Beyond. This is not because Confucianism implemented policies that were downright inhibitive of commercial activities. In the core states Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, and Indonesia the number of students and teachers, and of secondary schools, colleges, and universities, has risen dramatically. Confucius provided few specific moral principles. Daoism [] stands alongside Confucianism as one of the two great religious/philosophical systems of China. In Ancient China, understanding the Dao helped one to harmonize themselves with what? It must be admitted that he also largely ignores Weber‘s critical attitude to modern capitalism, and for the most part interprets Weber’s thesis of the Protestant Ethic as a positive and creative transformation, though he mentions in passing that ‘the Protestant ethic that has contributed to the rise of capitalism in the West has led to all kinds of problems such as excessive individualism and excessive rights-consciousness’ (Tu, 1984: 86). Following Weber and Parsons (and in a similar vein to Marshall Berman's perceptive study of modernity, 1982), scholars like Peter Berger, Brigitte Berger, and Kellner (Berger et al. Unlike Daoism and confusician, Buddhism offered eternal happiness and personal salvation. Lin Biao, it was said, ‘used the doctrines of Confucius and Mencius as a reactionary ideological weapon in his plot to usurp Party leadership, seize state power and restore capitalism in China’ (Publisher’s Note, 1974). The coinage of ‘Confucian Capitalism’ involves an effort to identify particular Confucian traits that are supposedly instrumental in the fast economic progress in these four societies, now also including China. The categorical imperative merely makes implicit that which we take to be indispensable and inalienable to morality; but it also offers us a North Star. Qi is “vital energy”, the difference between the living and the dead. This vision is but one in a long line of ideas on how Southeast Asia should be seen, interpreted, and eventually constructed. Weber makes a clear distinction between economic policies and economic attitude, and while the Confucian scholar-officials presented many favourable policies, the Confucian culture did not, according to Weber, produce any comparable kind of economic attitude to the one engendered by Protestant Christianity. Malaysia and Singapore, in particular, are on the way to become knowledge societies, where economic and social development is increasingly knowledge driven. 2. Morality is possible at all because humans are metaphysically (absolutely and not contingently) free and they have poor reason. Slingerland understands that, on Xunzi’s account, rational faculties and emotional faculties are competitive in the reasoning process. 14. Kahn suggests that we may have to accept that ‘societies based on the, Purushottama Bilimoria, ... Maxine Haire, in, The foregoing discussions have sought to show that both Confucianism and Daoism possess a strong ethical dimension. Class formation moved ahead and the growth of a middle class became a much researched topic in Southeast Asia (Robison and Goodman 1996, Chua 2000). Confucianism developed during the Spring and Autumn Period from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551–479 BCE), who considered himself a retransmitter of Zhou values. Whether and how Daoism could ground business ethics will be addressed by examining the Daoist doctrine of Dao, ethical organization and management, wu wei management, and ethical leadership. Tu Wei-Ming describes it as follows: “The most basic stuff that makes the cosmos is neither solely Other major Confucian classics include The Book of Meng Zi, The Book of Change, The Book of History, The Odes, The Book of Rites, and The Spring and Autumn.Although the precise dates of these works cannot be ascertained, scholars generally believe they were compiled during the Spring–Autumn and Warring States period (7… Slingerland (2010), on the other hand, categorizes Xunzi’s moral psychology as a theory that presumes what he calls the “high reason model,” which significantly resembles the reason-based model in Soek’s account. Schumpeter inspired the historical research of the Harvard Center for Entrepreneurial History. Confucian and Chinese are distinct categories’ (Tu et al, 1992: 5). tried to organize the writings and ideas that represented the major intellectual alternatives available For instance, he writes: ‘It is likely … that members of Neo-Confucian cultures will get a sense of superiority, whether cultural, racial, or nationalistic. In these books, Confucian ethics were combined with Taoist concepts of longevity and a divine bureaucracy, or with Buddhist notions of karma. Wang also argues that Xunzi’s ethics can be captured by neither of these models; instead, she develops a hybrid model that emphasizes ritual practices in the cultivation of xin 心 and qing 情 as a means of approaching sagehood, which sheds light on a possible interplay between reason and emotion in ideal moral judgments. There was a clear desire to ‘disprove’ Weber’s thesis and demonstrate that a Confucian culture was actually no less capable than the Protestant Ethic of developing a modernized kind of capitalism. Since then urbanization has taken off, creating large urban conglomerates like the Greater Bangkok area, Jabotabek (Jakarta, Bogor, Tanggerang, Bekasi), the Manila Metropolitan Area, and the Klang Valley in Malaysia including the federal territory of Kuala Lumpur, the new administrative city of Putrajaya, and the high-technology center Cyberjaya. 5 and sociopolitical relationships that constitute the ethical realm, others focus on the formation of individual moral character through self-cultivation. The Confucian attitude to consumption and consumerism is therefore perhaps best approached by reviewing briefly the abundant discussion of Confucianism and capitalism that has already taken place. It is in response to these doubts that Immanuel Kant developed his absolutist, deontological, and cognitivistic ethics. Evidence for this cultural approach is found in various empirical researches, including: Martin's (1990) analysis of the role of Protestant sects in generating a dynamic process among segments of the urban poor in contemporary Latin American cities that fosters entrepreneurial activities; Redding's study of the relation between basic aspects of Chinese culture—such as Confucian ethic and family attitudes—and the entrepreneurial behavior among overseas Chinese (1990); Landa's thesis of the entrepreneurial success of ethnically homogeneous middlemen groups in Africa and in Southeast Asia (1991). These morals, in other words, do not travel well. We have mentioned at the introduction to this article on Chinese ethics that the ancient Confucians and Daoists did not develop a branch of studies called ethics. Whether or not justifiable, the Confucian philosophers were seen back then by the radical wing of the CCP as ‘capitalist-roaders’. The pursuit of virtue, in other words, does not produced morality, but the pursuit of morality leads us to virtue. The most important trait of character in this Daoist virtue ethics is respect for different ways of life—a virtue not discussed in any familiar versions of virtue ethics in the West and yet most valuable to contemporary life in a global and pluralistic society. Admittedly, there are limits to Weber’s analysis of Confucianism and Daoism, as it is largely based on questionable second-hand sinological sources. The book is written in a decade of severe economic problems in the West, including the oil crisis, trade deficits, and rising inflation, while the economies of Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and South Korea were able to overcome rising oil prices and the general economic crisis in the world, enjoying far higher growth rates than the United States and Western European countries. Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is a system of thought and behavior originating in ancient China.Variously described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life, Confucianism developed from what was later called the Hundred Schools of Thought from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551–479 BCE). Wang, C. Rowley, in Business Networks in East Asian Capitalisms, 2017, Due to the holistic feature from the Chinese Yin-Yang culture, there are no clear boundaries among the political, economic, and social apparatus in human life—as a whole, it is guided by a general principle which is Confucian ethics (Fung, 1948). Thus, we have Lai’s attempt at articulating a, Reason and Emotion in Xunzi’s Moral Psychology, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics (Second Edition). A moral act is one that is done for its own sake, or else it is a not a moral act but a contingent action aimed at achieving some specific end. Humanity will flourish only to the extent that the human way (rendao) is attuned to or harmonized with the Cosmic Dao, in part through the wise rule of sage-kings who practice wuwei, or the virtue of taking no action that is not in accord with nature. Despite the different distinctive features in each of the philosophies, the two complemented each other and it was believed that for one to be considered complete: he/she had to measure up to the two philosophies. The growth of a new middle class was seen as a basic requirement for democratization and the building of a civil society. A central figure in this process was the respected Harvard scholar of Confucianism, Tu Weiming, who was doubtless brought to Singapore to confirm the stimulating characteristics of Singaporean Confucianism for its capitalist modernity. Purushottama Bilimoria, ... Maxine Haire, in Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, & Conflict (Second Edition), 2008. Duty draws out for us this rational and free dimension of morality. Both traditions have permeated Chinese culture for some 2,500 years. Kant argues that we must suspend all appeal to history, folklore, and religion in order to reflect on what we take to be truly moral. The family apparatus has been adopted naturally in both social-cultural and political-economic systems and facilitated the synchronising of these two systems. Daoist philosophy characteristically contrasts the Cosmic Dao in its naturalness, spontaneity, and eternal rhythmic fluctuation with the artificiality, constraint, and stasis of human society and culture. Confucian ethics is also a natural law tradition that has been significantly influenced by Taoism. As mentioned above, Confucius was targeted along with Lin Biao in a campaign during the latter half of the Cultural Revolution. Not only is it possible, but it is perfectly legitimate to reflect on the traditional teachings and evolve Confucian and Daoist ethics if both the traditions were to have relevance for the modern world. In both cases, the socialization entails acquiring certain social habits and living in accordance with communally sanctioned or proscribed mores and manners. The first adheres to the rise of industrial producer capitalism and, therefore, to Weber’s thesis, while the second has to do with the contemporary type of consumer capitalism that has increasingly characterized Western societies since the mid-twentieth century. The Chinese word for state is composed of two characters (国家), which are literally ‘state’ and ‘family’, because only the notion of family can evoke the sense of belonging in Chinese people. 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