In preindustrial Europe, women’s and men’s work was complementary rather than separate, as peasants worked communally to bring in the harvest or artisanal women oversaw journeymen and apprentices, kept the books, and marketed the product. Flashcards. Learn. In many ways, the very founding of this country was all about these three separate themes that became increasingly difficult to distinguish from one another once colonial life truly began in earnest. The tone of literature shifted after years of grueling WWI combat. David Grene and Richard Lattimore. Copyright 2020  . ... Read more. 10-76. The poor were viewed as objects of charity or dangerous idlers requiring social control, such as disciplinary measures or confinement. Created by. The Enlightenment brought a new emphasis on childhood as a stage of life, and the ideal of companionate marriage began to compete with arranged marriages. contemplated an individual's relationship with his or her, Sixteen Illustrate the Major Theme of This, Historians Discuss Major Themes Dealing Vast Variety, Turkish Literature Compare Shahnameh With, Sixteen Illustrate The Major Theme Of This, Major Themes in European Literature Term Paper. Building off the voyages of exploration and colonization, the Commercial Revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries involved a wide range of new financial and economic practices — such as joint-stock companies, widely capitalized banks, and triangular trade — all of which supported an emerging money economy. After World War II, the welfare state emerged in Western Europe with more support for families, choices in reproduction, and state-sponsored health care. Lattimore. Within Europe, exposure to new peoples and cultures influenced art and literature, and spurred on efforts to find a scientific basis for “racial” difference. David Grene and Richard In general, materials concerning Central and Western Europe from the fourteenth century to the end of the Napoleonic era are in scope for the Prosperity was never equally distributed, either geographically or by social class, and despite the wonders of the railroad and airplane, poverty never disappeared. The encounters with non-European peoples profoundly affected European trade, social life, and ideas. African Literature: A Critical Overview. * How has the organization of society changed as a result of or in response to the development and spread of capitalism? 160-212. Europeans continued to engage in science and to regard the results of science as being of universal value, while postmodernist thinkers emphasized the subjective component — the role of the actor — in all human activities, including scientific ones. contemplated an individual's relationship with his or her environment. European society has become, with fits and starts, a pluralistic one. The military revolution of the early modern period forced states to find new and better sources of revenue, and it spurred the expansion of state control over political and economic functions. An important strand of Enlightenment thought — the belief in citizenship, popular sovereignty, equality, and liberty — promoted by the American and French Revolutions also contributed to the ideology of the abolitionist movements, and European states abolished the slave trade in the early 19th century. Home » Browse » Literature » Literary Themes and Topics » Holocaust Literature » Holocaust Literature Holocaust Literature Great Adventures and Explorations from the Earliest Times to the Present, as Told by the Explorers Themselves By Vilhjalmur Stefansson; Olive … Historians discuss major themes dealing vast variety materials events encounter studying history.Three themes Focus upon the motive of generational conflict. Starting in the 15th century, European thinkers began developing new methods for arriving at objective truth — substituting these methods for appeals to traditional authorities — and then gradually moved away from belief in absolute truths to increasingly subjective interpretations of reality. The ideal that every US citizen should have an equal opportunity to achieve success and prosperity through hard work, determination, and initiative. Quite often, … The history of European literature and of each of its standard periods can be illuminated by comparative consideration of the different literary languages within Europe and of the relationship of European literature to world literature. Competition for colonies also destabilized the European balance of power and was a significant cause of World War I. Peace and war: The contradiction between peace and war is a popular topic for authors. In the Americas, they created colonies and imposed their religious, social, and political institutions on the native peoples. Socialism argued for state ownership of property and economic planning to promote equality, and, later, Marxism developed a systematic economic and historical theory that inspired working-class movements and revolutions to overthrow the capitalist system. Match. Immigrants sometimes challenged secularism in European life and reasserted their religious values. European influence. World War I profoundly affected European society by conclusively ending the residual hold of old elites on power and democratizing society through shared sacrifice, represented by female suffrage in many nations. From everyday life, perception and time to the kaleidoscopic and fractured nature of modern life, discover the ways in which these writers created and captured the modern. Born in 1927, a central theme in Grass’ writing was the question of what it meant to be German after Nazism took hold of the country. European literature refers to the literature of Europe. According to Lionel Trilling, since the 16th century one of the most important themes in European literature is Sincerity, and later Authenticity. With their American colonies and the global reach of their seafarers, Europeans helped to create a truly global trading system, introducing new foods (such as tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, and corn) that changed the food cultures of China, India, and Europe. Although Ferdowsi wrote his text with the intention that people of all backgrounds would be able to celebrate the history of the land, the folkloric tradition derived its appeal from the fact that everyone could relate with the characters in a very real, first-hand way. As a result, mercantilism promoted commercial competition and warfare overseas. Council of Europe member states have made strong commitments to the effective realisation of gender equality agenda both through the implementation of standards and through measures and activities in six priority areas. Create your own unique website with customizable templates. * How and why did Europeans come to rely on the scientific method and reason in place of traditional authorities? At the same time as Europe was experiencing the material consequences of its interaction with the world, European intellectuals began to describe and analyze the peoples and cultures with which they came into contact, as well as to collect and catalogue the flora and fauna they discovered. * What were the causes and consequences of economic and social inequality? Mercantilism assumed that existing sources of wealth could not be expanded; accordingly, the only way to increase one’s economic power over others was to gain a greater share of the existing sources of wealth. Literary works were originally composed in Latin, but poets began writing in vernacular (the common language of the people) as early at the 7th century CE. The end of the Cold War and the rise of the European Union brought some shared social values to light, as well as contested issues of immigration, guest workers, and the shifting religious and ethnic balance of Europe. Philosophers of the natural world created a new theory of knowledge based on observation and experimentation, along with new institutions to put the new theories into practice. As Europeans expanded overseas, the theaters of European warfare expanded as well. Though policies of unity have supported Europe’s postwar economic miracle, they have also encountered challenges of a stagnating population, financial crises, and growing social welfare commitments. Selections drawn from European, English, and American literature, not limited to period and genre. European literature includes literature in many languages; among the most important of the modern written works are those in English, Spanish, French, Dutch, Polish, Ukrainian, German, Italian, Modern Greek, Czech, Russian, Bosnian, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Finnish and Irish. After 1450, the old ideal that Europe constituted a unified Christendom was weakened by the rise of sovereign states. In conquered territories, Europeans established new administrative, legal, and cultural institutions, and restructured colonial economies to meet European needs. Modernist writers broke new ground by experimenting with new forms and themes. The global history of literature from the ancient Near East to the present can be divided into five main, overlapping stages. The growth of secular power played a critical role in the success of the Protestant Reformation, and states gained increasing influence over religious affairs. A human ideal is to be seen in the savage satire of Juvenal and in Anacreon’s songs of love and wine, as … The following links, organized by literary period, are to the library's catalog for works by author, title, literary movement, type of work, etc. The Complete Greek Tragedies. Consumerism, always an important factor in economic growth, took on even more importance in the second half of the 20th century, although not without criticism. Literary modernism, or modernist literature, originated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, mainly in Europe and North America, and is characterized by a self-conscious break with traditional ways of writing, in both poetry and prose fiction.Modernists experimented with literary form and expression, as exemplified by Ezra Pound's maxim to "Make it new." Themes / Gender equality themes. Perhaps the most significant change since World War II has been the movement toward European economic unity and a common currency. Within those estates, family, religion, and landed wealth shaped social practices, and inequality of wealth prevailed within each estate. From the 16th to the 19th centuries, the transatlantic slave trade became a central feature of the world economy, and millions of Africans were transported via the notorious “Middle Passage” to labor on plantations in the Americas. In the mid–20th century, the rise of the United States as an economic and military power, two world wars, and the four-decades-long Cold War led to a decolonization movement that diminished Europe’s economic and diplomatic place in the world. The use of “race” as a primary category for differentiating peoples coincided with the expansion of slavery, as Europeans sought a work force for overseas plantations; this categorization helped Europeans justify the slave system. 2020. STUDY. Thesis examples on European Literature. At the end of the 20th century, Europe sought new ways of defining interactions among its own nations and with the rest of the world. Peasants left the countryside to work in the new factories, giving up lives as tenants on landlords' estates for wage labor. 2020,, sixteen illustrate the major theme of this text which is how changes in the macro environment affect individual firms and industries through the microeconomic factors of demand, production, cost and profitability. These actions often led to resistance in colonial areas. Get instant access to thousands high quality essay database with sample essays, which contains free essays, free term papers and free research papers on virtually any topic and/or subject. Antigone. The activities and influence of Europeans varied in different parts of the world. In the late 19th century, the scale and pace of conquest intensified because of asymmetries in military technology, communications, and national rivalries among the Great Powers. In the centuries after 1450, Europe first entered and then gradually came to dominate a global commercial network. Science came to be viewed as an objective source of truth about the natural world. However, cross-cultural influence flowed in both directions. Humanistic Conception Towards the 18th Century European spirit of cosmopolitism which is encouraged by humanists, as heirs of Latin literary artistic and philosophical heritage, reflects in works of authors in the 18th century: Voltaire, Russo, and above all Goethe. Colonial Life Factors * How have encounters between Europe and the world shaped European culture, politics, and society? "Major Themes In European Literature" (2013, January 10) Retrieved December 21, 2020, from, "Major Themes In European Literature" 10 January 2013. Understand the concept of European literature; 2.