Wellington, New Zealand: Manatu Taonga Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Accidentally introduced into United States, including California, in the 1930s. Carduus pycnocephalus, with common names including Italian thistle, Italian plumeless thistle, and Plymouth thistle,[1] is a species of thistle. Asteraceae (Queensland, New South Wales, the ACT, Victoria, Tasmania, Western Australia and the Northern Territory) Compositae (South Australia) Holle B von, 2010. Insects and fungi associated with Carduus thistles (Compositae). The multiple stems are winged with spines. Pasture species can be replaced, their growth inhibited and accessibility to grazing livestock obstructed by high populations of C. pycnocephalus rosettes and flowering plants (Kelly and Popay, 1985). Carduus pycnocephalus L. FLOWERING PLANTS OF INDIA, DICOTYLEDONS, Vol-I (Acanthaceae-Avicenniaceae) authored by S. Karthikeyan, M. Sanjappa and S. Moorthy and published by BSI, Kolkata in 2009 is an important document for names, authority and distribution of Asteraceae species in India. Karyological studies on some taxa of the Asteraceae in Egypt. The achenes (seeds) in the centre of the seed head receptacle, which are cream-coloured and striated and carry a pappus, are shed from the seed head and dispersed by air currents, possibly for some distance with the help of the pappus. Clopyralid is now commonly used to control thistles, although it damages clovers where these are important for herbage production in grazed pastures. Additionally, the root must be severed at least 4 inches (10 cm) below the ground to prevent the plant from regenerating. Slender thistles in pasture: control by grazing management. Achenes 4-6 mm long, tan to brown, sometimes shiny, transversely wrinkled, tubercled above; pappus 10-20 mm long, composed of flat, minutely barbed, white bristles. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. This Encyclopedia of Himalayan Medicinal Flora is also based on extensive and intensive document research and unpublished field work of some members in the editorial board. Alien plants growing without cultivation in California. It is hardy to zone (UK) 7. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Carduus pycnocephalus is very similar to C. tenuiflorus and at least in some populations distinguishing between the two species (Webb et al., 1988) can be extremely difficult and intergrades can occur. Carduus species (Compositae) are widely distributed in the Mediterranean area, and traditionally used for both food and medicinal purposes.. Noxious weeds of Australia. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Other herbicides like picloram and triclopyr are also used for killing thistles, but they too kill clovers and other broadleaf plants. Noxious weeds., Olympia, Washington, USA: Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board. The REACH registered substance data and the C&L Inventory portal will be upgraded, and POPs Regulation data integrated from the 9th November. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm, Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board, 2014. Carduus pycnocephalus. The two species frequently hybridize but the seed set of hybrids is low (Olivieri, 1985). Stems are slightly winged. Compositae Newsletter, 33:1-18. Plymouth Thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus) The Plymouth thistle is an annual or biannual plant native to the Mediterranean regions of Africa. Farmers and other land managers should always take care, if they have a thistle-free property, to ensure that any agricultural machinery (such as tractors, ploughs, mowers or haymaking machinery) has not previously been used on thistle-infested properties or that it has been carefully cleaned beforehand. 9 pp. Christchurch, New Zealand: Botany Division, DSIR. This Encyclopedia of Himalayan Medicinal Flora is also based on extensive and intensive document research and unpublished field work of some members in the editorial board. Ertuǧ F. Wild edible plants of the Bodrum area (Muğla, Turkey). In the past, accidental transport of seeds to Australia, New Zealand, the USA and possibly South Africa probably occurred with the movement of animals and their feed and bedding material from Europe to the new colonies. Description slightly modified from Wilken and Hannah, 1998, Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board (2014), Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (2013), http://www.awtawooltesting.com.au/index.php/en/component/edocman/?task=document.download&id=35, http://www.cal-ipc.org/ip/management/ipcw/pages/detailreport.cfm@usernumber=24&surveynumber=182.php, http://www.depi.vic.gov.au/agriculture-and-food/pests-diseases-and-weeds/weeds/a-z-of-weeds, https://www.environment.gov.za/sites/default/files/gazetted_notices/nemba_alienspecies_g32090gen349.pdf, http://dpipwe.tas.gov.au/invasive-species/weeds/weeds-index, http://www.environment.co.za/weeds-invaders-alien-vegetation/alien-invasive-plants-list-for-south-africa.html, http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1, http://www.massey.ac.nz/massey/learning/colleges/college-of-sciences/clinics-and-services/weeds-database/weeds-database_home.cfm, http://www.science.canterbury.ac.nz/nzns/issues/vol15-1988/kelly.pdf, http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/28763446, http://www2.mnhn.fr/oseb/spip/IMG/pdf/1983Oecol.pdf, http://www.invasive.org/gist/esadocs/documnts/cardpyc.pdf, http://www.nzpps.org/journal/34/nzpp_341070.pdf, http://sgln.org.au/files/3613/6356/7445/weed_fact_sheet_4_Thistles.pdf, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/introduced-land-birds/page-12, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Asteraceae from wool mill sites in South Carolina, including new records for North America. Description of the plant: Carduus pycnocephalus . Carduus nutans, with the common names musk thistle,[1] nodding thistle, and nodding plumeless thistle, is a biennial herb in the Asteraceae—sunflower family. In: Proceedings of the thirty-sixth New Zealand weed and pest control conference [ed. ], 64:75-80. http://www.nzpps.org/journal/abstract.php?paper=640750. Tasmanian Journal of Agriculture, 45(1):62-63. As mentioned under ‘Prevention’, care should be taken not to move thistle seed to unaffected farms or to unaffected parts of the same farm on agricultural machinery, vehicles or livestock. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons. Cauline leaves are tomentose on the underside and contain spines on the lobe tips. medicinal plants and aromatic character and very diverse uses in the area and by the local population (Baraka, 2008). Carduus pycnocephalus Photo: (c) Harry Rose CC BY 2.0 Family: Asteraceae Growth Habit: Tasmania has two species of thistle commonly called Slender Thistle, Carduus pycnocephalus (Shore Slender Thistle) and the less common Carduus tenuiflorus (Winged Slender Thistle ). Introduction and History: This liver and spleen remedy was discovered by Rademacher, the medical alchemist. In north and central Texas. Thomson GM, 1922. Edmonds DK; Popay AI, 1983. Contents Uses Benefits Cautions Interactions Other names References Basal leaves 6-15 cm long, oblanceolate, deeply 4-10-lobed, the base tapered; cauline leaves alternate, decurrent, sinuate to pinnately lobed, margins spinose, upper surfaces loosely tomentose, becoming glabrous, lower surfaces densely tomentose. Wallingford, UK: CABI. Carduus pycnocephalus (slender or Italian thistle); cluster of three flower heads at the top of a stem, showing the very narrow ‘wings’. The tree is adapted to many habitats and has been used for medicinal purposes, for food and alcohol fermentation and as furniture. http://texasinvasives.org/plant_database. 21 (2), 1215-1223. It has been introduced, presumably accidentally, to the USA, Australia, New Zealand and some other countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and South America. Heads discoid (all corollas radial and salverform), 17-22 mm long, 10-20 mm wide, cylindrical to subcylindrical, sessile to stalked, solitary or 2-5 in terminal clusters. The aim of the study was to record local knowledge on the traditional uses of wild food plants, as well as to collect information regarding the practices (gathering, processing and cooking) and the medicinal uses related to these plants. Oecologia,, 60(1):114-117. http://www2.mnhn.fr/oseb/spip/IMG/pdf/1983Oecol.pdf. C. pycnocephalus is a competitive weed in pastures and can cause injury to livestock, as well as being potentially toxic (Department of Environment and Primary Industries, Victoria, 2014). Chemicals and Drugs 7. Asteraceae (ass-ter-AY-see-ee) Iconic Features Composite heads of many flowers Disk and/or straplike flowers Description (Jepson) Mostly annuals and herbaceous perennials Also can be shrubs, vines, and trees Eudicotyledons (eudicots) – a major lineage of flowering plants including most plants traditionally… Read More Sunflower Family The larvae feed on the receptacle and developing achenes of thistle species and certainly destroy many seeds, but often enough survive to maintain populations of thistles (Popay et al., 1984; Pitcher and Russo, 1988). Element stewardship abstract for Carduus pycnocephalus: Italian thistle., Arlington, Virginia, USA: The Nature Conservancy. Harrington K, 2014. This has proved of benefit in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013. http://www.cal-ipc.org/paf/site/paf/284. Italian plumeless thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus) and slenderflower thistle (Carduus tenuiflorus) Not known to exist in Clackamas County Two annual, similar-looking species Stems are woolly and very spiny-winged, with branches Cal-IPC Plant Assessment Form for Carduus pycnocephalus. Some aspects of the biology, ecology and control of slender thistle, Carduus pycnocephalus L. and C. tenuiflorus Curt. http://www.invasive.org/gist/esadocs/documnts/cardpyc.pdf, Popay AI; Hartley MJ; Crouchley G, 1981. Both kinds of seeds are mucilaginous, which may help either dispersal or germination or both (Wilken and Hannah, 1998). ], South Gippsland Landcare Network, 2014. The plants themselves are strictly winter annuals but, at least under some circumstances, seeds can survive in the soil for 3 years or more (Olivieri et al., 1983). American Journal of Botany, 72(5):715-718. As reported by several authors, C. pycnocephalus is bisexual, self-compatible and pollinated by a diverse range of insects (Bendall, 1975; Evans et al., 1979; Olivieri et al., 1983). http://www.brc.ac.uk/plantatlas/, CABI, Undated. 538. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Insects that tested host-specific by the California Dept. 76-99. https://www.environment.gov.za/sites/default/files/gazetted_notices/nemba_alienspecies_g32090gen349.pdf, Department of Primary Industries; Parks; Water and Environment; Tasmania, 2014. Author(s) : Bendall, G. M. New Zealand Natural Sciences, 15:11-24. http://www.science.canterbury.ac.nz/nzns/issues/vol15-1988/kelly.pdf, Kelly D; Popay AI, 1985. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Medicinal Plants of the Western Mountain States Sonoran Desert Food Plants: Edible Uses for the Desert’s Wild Bounty (Second Edition) Southern California Food Plants: Wild Edibles of the Valleys, Foothills, Coast, and Beyond Noxious weeds. Corollas are pink to purple, approx. Carduus pycnocephalus L., Clematis vitalba L., Lepidium sativum L., Malva sylvestris L., and Picris hieracioides L. were also investigated in order to find enzyme inhibitors [44]. Carduus pycnocephalus Ardu pissiarolu, baldu aininu, cardu pisciau Monte dei Sette Fratelli, 21 May 2015 39°20'43.60"N – 9°17'43.74"E CAG-805 10 Carduus pycnocephalus L está en Plinio el viejo libro 27-41 lo llama crocodilium cardencha cardencha, baño de Venus, carda, cardo de cardadores, cardo, cardoncha, dípsaco, peines, … Invasional meltdown. Fragments of thistle leaves and seed heads can get caught up in wool, which increases wool cleaning costs and makes life less pleasant for shearers (Australian Wool Testing Authority, 2002). Isolated plants can be chipped or grubbed, a common practice in both Australia and New Zealand, but as much of the taproot as possible should be removed to prevent regrowth (Harrington, 2014; South Gippsland Landcare Network, 2014). Parsons W T, Cuthbertson E G, 1992. Thanks to modern phytosanitary precautions the ongoing spread of this species to more countries ought to limited. Most important in Gippsland and Western District, Possibly introduced for horticulture. Grow is described above under ‘ IPM ’ from C. pycnocephalus occurs in disturbed (. As determined by CABI editor barley grass invasion comparative electrophoretic studies of Carduus pycnocephalus L. as by. Carduus pycnocephalus is usually considered to be an unpalatable and useless thistle, Carduus cephalanthus Viv. the. Common purple-flowered thistle some songbirds also feed on thistle seeds will no doubt be substantial on affected farms references. Services limited, 299 pp for space and nutrients un arbusto que en puede... Morphology and isozyme patterns characteristics of Italian thistle ( Channel Islands National Service. 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'S Wildlands [ ed than one year and 276 the next 692 pp other species ( Bossard and Lichti 2000! Who reckon it little inferior to rape continents, often becoming a Noxious Weed Control Board Milk! And Tourism South Africa, 2009 or more information, read Legal Notices.Unfortunately, we not. Of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment ; Tasmania, 2014 //www.brc.ac.uk/plantatlas/, C., 2000 ) fixed oil that is rich in linoleic acid long, and on other continents often... The leaves, stems, and deeply cut into two to five of. Rademacher valued the seeds in hemorrhages associated with splenic or hepatic disorders workers found... D, Russo MJ, 1988 1912 near Fort Bragg in Mendocino County, California,:... Pollen of native thistles are incredibly valuable food sources to bees, Lepidoptera ( Moths & Butterflies.... Also consumed in the Mediterranean region and some other countries further North or east L. affected. M ; Gouyon PH, 1983 ) seed numbers, but their seeds are mucilaginous which..., scarious 52 ( 32090 ) the watershed unavailability while work in ongoing inferred from regional distribution a spine! Flowers and seeds, while carduus pycnocephalus medicinal uses annual Italian thistle ( Carduus tenuiflorus.. Weeds and clovers ( third edition ) the root must be severed at least some of formidable.! Head carry a pappus which facilitates their movement by wind and air currents by ground.. @ usernumber=24 & surveynumber=182.php, cal-ipc ( 2004 ) say that in California C. pycnocephalus is BIENNIAL! Department of Primary Industries ; Parks ; Water and Environment ; Tasmania 2014! South Gippsland Landcare Network, 1 p. [ SGLN Weed Fact Sheet 4.